Example: No likelihood of confusion due to (written) visual similarity: the figurative trademark "PUMA"
[Translate to English:]
is not infringed by use of the figurative sign "PUDEL" (German Federal Supreme Court, judgement of 2 April 2015 - I ZR 59/13 - Springender Pudel).
BUT: The use of the sign "PUDEL" nevertheless infringes the well-known(!) trademark "PUMA", because likelihood of confusion is not necessary (see above) and here the appreciation of the well-known trademark is exploited (Federal Supreme Court, judgement of 2 April 2015 - I ZR 59/13 - Springender Pudel).
Example: Conceptual Similarity
From 1993 to 1999, the Beck brewery had a registered figurative trademark for beer in which an upside down key was depicted:
This trademark infringed the earlier figurative trademark "Original Schlüssel Obergaerige Handwerkliche Hausbrauerei" of Brauerei Schluessel. This trademark was also registered for beer. For the signs had coincided in their meaning. The trademark of Brauerei Beck was therefore cancelled again (Federal Supreme Court, decision of 18 March 1999 - I ZB 24/96 - Schlüssel).